Onion Farming In Ghana – A Comprehensive Guide On How to start A Profitable Onion Farm In Ghana

Few days ago or so, I have received calls and messages from people on How to start a profitable Onion farm in Ghana.

I have taken an hour of my precious time to bring to you the answers to your questions by listing the  step by step approach in starting Onion farming in Ghana

In this article you will get the comprehensive approach to become an Onion gardener in Ghana

Organic onion cultivation is very popular with home gardeners in Ghana. Because growing onions is very easy and they are well known for their robustness.

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Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool season crop and are usually planted in early spring. They are among the most popular and used vegetables around the world. Onions are grown all over the world for food. They are usually served cooked as a vegetable or as part of a prepared savory dish. Some people prefer to eat raw onions or make pickles or chutneys.

Growing onions organically in your home garden will require some patience. But you will be rewarded with onions that taste and smell better than the ones you bought at the market.

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How to grow onions in the home garden in Ghana

Growing onions organically in your home garden in Ghana will be very easy if you do everything perfectly. Here I am  describing everything related to growing onions from planting, from care to harvest. Enjoy this article.

Choose the variety of onion

There are several types and varieties of onions to choose from. They differ in size, shape and color.
There are different types of onions available, such as red, yellow, and white, with sizes ranging from small pickled to large. The shape of the onions also varies, such as globe, head or spindle.

Among all these many different varieties of onions, you should choose the ones that will grow well in your area.

Consult any existing home gardener in your area for better suggestions.
Some common onion varieties are Yellow Sweet Spanish, Red Wethersfield, First Edition, Burgundy, White Bermuda, and Stuttgarter.

Buy transplants, sets or seeds

Onions are grown in many different ways. You can start growing onions from transplants, sets, or seeds. So, after selecting the varieties, you can buy transplants, sets, or seeds.

The best time to grow onions in Ghana

Onions are the cool season crop. That is why you have to plan the cultivation of onions during the colder months (winter season).

Best Months for planting Onion in Ghana

Onion farming is primarily restricted to Ghana’s northern areas, in contrast to other vegetables like tomatoes that are cultivated all over the nation. The majority of onion producers only grow one crop each year, which is typically planted in January and harvested in April.

Soil preparation

Onions are known for their hardiness and can be grown in almost any type of soil. But loamy soil is considered best for growing onions with the availability of full sun and a good drainage system.
Prepare the soil by adding as many organic fertilizers as possible. Well rotten aged manure or homemade compost will be perfect. Remember, onions are very nutritious and need a constant supply of nutrients to produce large bulbs.

Planting

Onions can be grown using many different planting methods. You can choose between transplants, sets or seeds.
Transplants are seedlings that are started in the current growing season and sold in bunches.

You can easily pick up transplants from one of the closest nurseries. Transplants actually make good bulbs in a short period of time, but they are prone to disease.

The sets are the immature bulbs grown in the previous year. Sets are the easiest to plant, harvest, and least susceptible to disease. Although sets are more prone to bolting.

While growing onions from seed offers the great benefits of a wide variety of cultivars. The main problem with growing onions from seed is “it will take longer (up to 4 months) to mature.”

Whichever method you choose to plant onions, place the plants 4 to 5 inches apart and in rows 12 to 18 inches.

Do not bury plants more than 1 inch below the ground when planting onion sets (onions are a leaf crop, not a root crop).

You can also plant a sprouted onion, but you won’t get any more (you will get plenty of tasty green sprouts though).

To take care of

After planting transplants or onion sets, you will need to pay extra attention to grow better and get better yields. Here are the common maintenance steps.

Feeding / fertilization

Onion plants are heavy suppliers. In order to grow better, they need additional fertilization.
So to get bigger bulbs, the plants will need to be fertilized every few weeks. Use aged manure or compost for this.

Irrigation

Growing onion plants usually requires less water than other crops. They will grow well without constant watering if mulch is used.

But irrigation is needed, especially in drought conditions. About 1 inch of water per week is enough. You will need more watering to produce sweeter onions.

Mulching

Mulching is necessary for growing onions. This will help retain moisture in the soil and also prevent most weeds.

Weed control

Adding mulch between rows will prevent most weeds. Use a sharp hoe to control weeds.
Pulling or digging weeds can damage the roots of the onion surface, so avoid that.

Thinning

Give the onions enough space for proper growth. If you are sowing seeds, thinning is necessary. Pull out a few plants and leave the plants at a distance of 4-5 cm.

Some common problems with onion growing in Ghana

There are some common problems (including pests and diseases) with growing onions in the home garden. Here we describe common problems.

Onion flakes

Onion worms lay eggs near the base of onion plants. The larvae hatch and nest in the stems, feed on the plants beneath the soil, and eventually kill the plants.
Crop rotation is a good way to avoid this. Covering new seedlings will help prevent spawning, and the use of diatomaceous earth will also be effective.

Thrips

Thrips are small, yellowish-brown flying insects that feed on leaves and can twist and twist. Sometimes the plant stops growing, causing the bulbs not to mature.
By planting a resistant variety, you will avoid this problem. The use of organic substances such as neem and insecticidal soaps will help prevent thrips.

Blow

In wet soil, you may experience rot on the neck, stem or bulbs. A good drainage and air circulation system can help prevent rot.

Splitting

If the soil remains dry during bulb formation, the bulbs will split or double.

Collection/ Harvesting

You can expect to harvest the onions when the onion plants send flower stalks. This means that the onions have stopped growing and this is the best time to harvest.
Just throw the onions when their tops are brown. After harvesting, allow the onions to dry for a few weeks before storing. Store the onions in a cool, dry place.

How long will it take for onions to grow?

90 days
Onions are a cold season crop that takes 90 days or longer to reach maturity. Due to the need for this long growing season and the fact that they prefer a cooler climate, when planting onion seeds directly in the garden in spring, it is difficult for the bulbs to reach a good size until the temperature arrives. hot.

What is the yield of onion per acre?

The seed rate of onion is 3 to 4 kg / acre. The farmer can expect a yield of 120 to 140 q/acre or 12 t to 14 t/ acre in 120 to 150 days after sowing

These are the steps in growing onions in Ghana. I hope you enjoyed this guide! Happy gardening

    1. Me Afenyo September 5, 2022

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