This guide will give you comprehensive information on how to start maize farming in Ghana and make a lot of money.
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Maize (Zea mays) is a highly adaptable crop that thrives in a variety of agroecological zones.
It is also a key component of Ghanaian meals and livestock feed, as well as a brewing industry alternative. Maize is Ghana’s most important staple crop, accounting for more than half of all cereal production. After cocoa, maize is the country’s second-largest commodity crop. Maize is one of Ghana’s most essential crops for food security and the agricultural economy. Farmers in Southern Ghana enjoy two farming seasons for rainfed maize cultivation. Maize harvesting begins in mid-May, with the minor season beginning in the last week of August. Farmers in Northern Ghana have a unimodal rainfall pattern, hence there is only one maize growing season, which starts in July. If you want to grow maize in Ghana, here is how your crop budget will look in 2021/2022 based on Planting for Food and Jobs input pricing.
1. THE LAND.
If you own the land you’ll be farming for your family or if you own it outright, the cost of land will be nothing. Farmers who do not own the lands they cultivate must pay a rental charge of GHS30 to GHS100 per acre, depending on where they are in Ghana, the condition of the property, and the terms of their land lease agreement with their landowner. However, before deciding on which site or crop to produce on the land, you must examinseveralof things.
2. PREPARE THE LAND.
Plowing and/or harrowing may be included in the cost of land preparation unless you are practicing conservation agriculture or no-till farming. Plowing costs between GHS65 and GHS120 per acre, whereas harrowing costs between GHS30 and GHS50 per acre.
3. SEED VALUE.
Consider the qualities of the seed and make sure it fits the area of your land before deciding whether to cultivate on an Open-Pollinated Varieties or Hybrid Variety seed. OPV costs GHS3/KG at the moment, while hybrid seed costs GHS5/KG, and you’ll need 9kg or 10kg per acre, bringing the total cost of seed to GHS30 or GHS50 per acre.
4. SOWING COSTS.
Manual sowing of an acre of maize farm costs between GHS40 and GHS60 if you own a tractor and planter, plus GHS20 for petrol, but renting a tractor and planter to sow your maize costs between GHS30 and GHS45 for an acre.
5. WEED MANAGEMENT.
Weed Control using Chemicals Non-selective weedicides range in price from GH14 to GHS20 each litter, depending on the brand, area of purchase, and volume of purchase. For one acre of land, one litter of non-selective weedicide is sufficient; it can be used before or after plowing or before planting. Selective weedicides or herbicides for first and second weed management after planting maize cost between GHS35 to GHS560 for a litter, which is enough for an acre of maize land.
Herbicide use can be avoided depending on the period of cultivation or how well the Nonselective weedicide was administered, lowering your production costs significantly. Herbicide application costs between GHS5 and GHS10 per acre. Because most herbicides are dangerous to crops or persons if sprayed in excess, farmers should utilize compliant herbicides, employ only well-trained herbicide applicators, and apply the correct quantity or measure of herbicide.
Weed Control by Hand
Farmers should anticipatspendingnd GHS40 to GHS70 per acre on organic maize, but they must use experienced workers to avoid damaging the maize plants’ roots.
6. FERTILIZER COST.
Inorganic Fertilizer is a type of fertilizer that is made up of inorganic elements.
Various farmers employ NPK and Urea ratios of 4:0, 2:2, 2:1, 3:1, or 4:1 depending on the type of seed used and soil fertility; nevertheless, adopting the 2:1 ratio, two 50kg bags of NPK and one 50kg bag of Urea cost GHS84 and GHS80 per bag, respectively. As a result, the total fertilizer cost per acre will be GHS248. Compost or organic liquid fertilizer can be used. For organic farmers, 10 bags of 50kg compost (GHS30 per bag) or 5 litters of organic liquid fertilizer (GHS40 per litter) are sufficient for both the first and second fertilizer applications, bringing the total cost to GHS300 per acre if compost is used, and GHS200 for an acre of maize farm if organic liquid fertilizer is used.
7. FERTILIZER APPLICATION COST.
If a farmer uses an inorganic fertilizer such as compost, the first fertilize, er and second fertilizer applications will cost GHS40 to GHS100 each, however, era farmer can send GHS5 to GHS10 per acre if he uses liquid organic fertilizer. Farmers should use skilled personnel to ensure that each corn crop is distributed evenly.
8. HARVESTING COSTS
The cost of harvesting an acre of maize ranged from GHS60 to GHS100 per acre. Harvested corn should be placed in heaps at strategic areas throughout the farm if your total land size is greater than 5 acres. Harvesting should be closely monitored so that maize policemen are not overlooked.
9. MECHANICAL PROCESSING COSTS – THRESHING
Farmers can negotiate a lower price if the total land under cultivation is large; most threshing services charge on a 10% basis, and payment can be made in cash, kind (with maize), or both.
As a result, if ten bags of corn are threshed, the operator receives one bag or GHS100 as remuneration for his services.
10. MAIZE TRANSPORT TO STORAGE.
Unless the corn produced at the farm gate is purchased by off-takers, it will have to be moved to a storeroom or warehouse for storage. Transportation costs could range from GHS3 to GHS7 per 100kg bag, depending on how distant the farm is from the storage or warehouse and the volume of corn to be transported.
How Many Bags Of Maize Can An Acre produced.
Many maize investors and farmers wonder how many bags of maize a 1 acre property can yield.
A lot of factors influence how many bags of corn a one-acre property can produce. In one place, a single acre of maize farming can produce 20 bags of dry maize (100kg bags), yet in another location, it may only produce 5 bags.
Because of a variety of circumstances, the number of bags of maize produced per acre of farmland in Africa is normally low. However, I’ve seen several farmers get more than 20 bags of corn per acre of land.
A MAIZE FARM’S PROFIT AND RETURN ON INVESTMENT
With an average yield of 1500kg (15 bags of 100kg or Cocoa sack/size 4 sack) and a farmer selling a bag for GHS100, the average cost of an acre of maize field will be around GHS900.
The overall profit from a corn farm acre will be:
Profit= 15 bags *Sell price per bag – Amount Invested Profit= Total number of bags gathered *Sell price per bag – Amount Invested *GHS100 – GHS900 – GHS1000 – GHS2000 – GHS3000
Profit = GHS 1500 – GHS 900 = GHS 600
GHS600/GHS900*100% ROI = 0.667*100% ROI = 66.7 percent Return on Investment (ROI) = GHS600/GHS900*100% ROI = 66.7 percent
Maize can take anywhere from 90 to 120 days to harvest, depending on the seed variety. Also, unless you have a purchase contract in place with a buyer at a specifiebeforeer before production, there may be a 20- to 60-day waiting and marketing period between harvest and cash, which must be accounted into your schedules when preparing to grow maize.
The profitability of a maize farm is determined by the following factors:
1. total investment
2. total crop yield
3. Maize selling price